Another, slightly more technical, look at Cayley’s Four Forces of Flight!
Cayley’s Four Forces
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky was born in Russia in 1857. The fifth of eighteen children, Tsiolkovsky first imagined a place without gravity when he was 8. It was a small hydrogen-filled ballon that rose to the ceiling each time he let it go that excited his imagination. Tsiolkovsky’s mother taught him to read and write. Before he entered his teens, his life took a turn that would forever alter his path.
As Tsiolkovsky wrote later, ” Age of 10 or 11, the beginning of winter, I rode a toboggan. Caught a cold. Fell ill, was delirious. They though I’d die but I got better, but became very deaf and deafness wouldn’t go. It tormented me very much.” The reality of a profound hearing loss a the time and in the area that Tsiolkovsky lived meant that his opportunities for education were extremely limited. He needed to depend upon himself to set goals and seek knowledge on his own. Continue reading
Russian Rocketman Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, truly a “Citizen of the Universe,” introduced these Sixteen Stages of Space Exploration in 1926. He believed that these incremental steps would bring man into space and allow him to thrive:
- Design of rocket-propelled airplanes with wings.
- Progressively increasing the speeds and altitudes reached with these airplanes. Continue reading
Ueli Gegenschatz takes everything we know about aerodynamics and puts it all into a series of brilliant extreme sports experiences in the pursuit of his dream of human flight. You can view this video and think about lift, drag, thrust, and weight, but chances are you’ll be too busy wishing you were there with him!
Says Gegenschatz: “I believe this is probably the closest possibility to come to the dream of being able to fly.”
There are claims that Boston pitcher Jon Lester cheated in the Series opener against St. Louis in Boston on Wednesday night. These claims are based upon an observable blob of something – I think I’d rather not know precisely what – in his glove. The substance in his glove does not necessarily equate to cheating. It’s what Lester did or did not do with the substance that counts.
A major league pitch moves through the air at speeds of 90 mph or more. As the ball moves forward, it is subject to aerodynamic forces known as the Magnus Force – a variation of the Bernoulli effect. In the case of the Magnus Force, it is the spinning of the ball and the raised surface of the stitches that create a whirlpool of rotating air around the ball. The moving air exerts pressure – think Bernoulli effect – and the ball moves in the direction of least resistance. A perfect curve ball curves right at the plate because of the Magnus Force. Continue reading
The development of rocket technology is a story of international accomplishment. Three men, working independently in three different countries, were at the forefront of liquid-fueled rocket development. All three did their work at the start of the 20th century, yet none of them knew of the others’ work in time to use that work in his own investigations.
- One of these “rocket men” was Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky of Russia. Born in 1857, he was the fifth of 18 children. Intrigued as a child by the way a small hydrogen-filled balloon rose to the ceiling each time he let it loose, as an adult he was determined to reach and live in space.
- Robert Goddard was the American rocket man. Born in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1882, he was 17-years old when he decided he would find a way to ascend to Mars.
- Hermann Oberth, born in 1894 in Romania, of German nationality, designed his rocket to work in stages. He also worked on research projects for Germany in the late 1930’s.
What did these three men have in common? Continue reading
Looking back on Andre-Jacque Garnerin’s parachute ‘drop‘ of 1797, we can easily say that his parachute had to work. He, of course, had no way of knowing his parachute would work or that it would slow him sufficiently for a safe landing. He also had no experience with making a safe landing. That didn’t stop him. In fact, that didn’t stop any of the early aerodynamic innovators.
True to the process of scientific discovery, Garnerin’s parachute experiment would not have been possible without the work of those who came before him – most notably the Montgolfier Brothers. Continue reading
Today is a big day in fluid dynamic history! It’s the 216th anniversary of the first successful parachute jump. Andre-Jacques Garnerin (1769-1823) accomplished this feat by going aloft attached to the bottom of a hot air balloon.
“I was on the point of cutting the cord that suspended me between heaven and earth… and measured with my eye the vast space that separated me between heaven and earth…” Garnerin wrote. He cut the cord and “I felt myself precipitated with a velocity that was checked by the sudden unfolding of my parachute.” Continue reading